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Earnings from capital asset refers to any income earned from a house property, either in the form of rent or through its sale. The Income Tax Act treats any property, such as a house, a building, an office, or a warehouse, as ‘estate.’ The ‘Income from House Property’ is one of the five types of income included when determining an assesse’s gross total income (GTI) per year. However, there are a variety of deductions that may be taken before the income from a rental property is taxed. Are you wondering if there are several sorts of house property to consider? This is essential to mention: the house property might be self-occupied, rented, or inherited, and the taxation will vary depending on the situation.


Properties included in the heading:

Your home, an office, a shop, a building, or some land attached to the building, including a parking lot, all seem to be types of house properties. There seems to be no difference between a commercial and a residential property under the Income Tax Act. In the income tax return, all types of properties are taxed under the description ‘income from house property.’ For taxation purposes, an owner is its legal owner, someone who can exercise the rights of the owner in his own right instead of on behalf of someone else.


When a property is used for a business or profession, or for freelancing work, it is taxed under the ‘income from business and profession’ head. Construction and maintenance expenses are covered as business expenses.


Computation of Tax under the heading:

The process of computing earnings under the category of “income from house property” begins with determining the property’s annual value. However, the property used by the assessee of the property with the intention of carrying on a business or profession on that property, and even the properties of an assessee engaged in the business of dealing out properties, seem to be exempted.


Composite Rent:

If the renting out of a building is integrated with moveable assets, such as machinery, blueprints, furniture, or fixtures, the composite rent will be taxed under the category “Profits and profits from business or profession” or “Income from other sources,” as the case may be. If, on the other hand, the letting out of a building is distinct from the letting out of other assets, income from the letting out of the building will be taxable under the heading “Income from house property,” while income from the letting out of other assets will be taxable under the heading “Profits and gains from business or profession” or “Income from other sources,” as applicable.


Owners mentioned under the heading

There are two types of owners mentioned under the heading “Income from House Property” that are :

1) Co-owner 

2) Deemed Owner

  • Property owner by Co-owner

If co-owners own a house and their share of the property is definite and ascertainable, the income out of that house will be separately analyzed in the hands of each co-owner. The yearly value of the property will be considered in proportion to their share of the property for the purpose of determining income from dwelling property. Each co-owner will be allowed to claim the benefit of self-occupied house property for their portion of the property in this scenario (subject to prescribed conditions). When the shares of co-owners are not known, the property’s revenue is assessed as though it belonged to an association of people. 

  • Property owner by Deemed Owner

A deemed owner is an owner by implication, although he may not be the owner in the real sense of the word. However, such a person is treated as an owner and is liable to tax in the same manner as any owner. Specific provisions have been made under the Income Tax Act that deal with tax on income from a residential property.


Deduction from Annual Value of the House Property

If the owner or his family resides in the house property, Section 24 of the Income Tax Act allows homeowners to claim a deduction of up to Rs. 2 lakhs (Rs. 1,50,000 if you are filing returns for the previous financial year) on their home loan interest. When the residence is rented, the whole interest is waived as a deduction.


Municipal tax – The annual sum paid to the municipal corporation of that region is known as municipal tax. To calculate the Net Annual Value of the residential property, subtract municipal taxes from the Gross Annual Value. Municipal taxes can only be deducted if they were paid and borne by the owner during that fiscal year.

Standard Deduction — The standard deduction is 30% of the above-mentioned Net Annual Value. This 30% deduction is granted regardless of whether your real property costs are higher or lower. As a result, this deduction is made regardless of any real expenses you may have paid for insurance, repairs, energy, or water supply, among other things. Because the Annual Value of a self-occupied dwelling property is $0, the standard deduction is likewise zero.


Interest on a home loan for the property can be deducted — If the owner or his family lives in the residence, the owner or his family can claim a deduction of up to Rs.2 lakh on their home loan interest. When the house is empty, the same technique is used. The whole interest on the house loan might be deducted if the property has been rented out. If you don’t fulfil any of the requirements for the Rs.2 lakh refund, your interest deduction is restricted to Rs.30,000. –

  • The loan must be for the purchase and building of a house. 
  • It must be obtained on or after April 1, 1999; and 
  • The purchase or construction must be completed within 5 years of the end of the financial year in which the loan was taken.



 1.Section 23 of Income Tax Act, 1961

2. Section 26 of the Income Tax Act, 1961

3. Section 27 of the Income Tax Act, 1961

4. Section 16IA of Income Tax Act, 1961

5. Section 80EEA of Income Tax Act, 1961


-By Saurabh Sarda

4th Year B.A L.L. B (Hons.)

Faculty of Law, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda,




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