India’s import and export system is governed by the Foreign Trade (Development & Regulation) Act of 1992 and India’s Export Import (EXIM) Policy.

Import and export of all goods are free, except for the items regulated by the EXIM policy or any other law currently in force. Registration with regional licensing authority is a prerequisite for the import and export of goods. The customs will not allow for clearance of goods unless the importer has obtained an Import Export Code (IEC) from the regional authority.

Everything you need to know while travelling with gold.

Everything you need to know while travelling with gold.

CUSTOM GUIDELINES

Every passenger entering India has to pass through Customs check. The passenger has to declare the contents of his baggage in the prescribed Indian Customs Declaration Form At airports the passenger has the option  of seeking clearance through the Green Channel or through the Red Channel subject to the nature of goods being  carried.

Everything you need to know while travelling with gold & customs - Bhatt & Joshi Associates

GREEN AND RED CHANNELS

For the purpose of Customs clearance of arriving passengers, a two channel system has been adopted:-

  1. Green Channel for passengers not having any dutiable goods.
  2. Red Channel for passengers having dutiable goods. However, Green channel passengers must deposit the Customs portion of the disembarkation card to the Customs official at the exit gate before leaving the terminal.

Passengers walking through the Green Channel with dutiable/prohibited goods are liable to prosecution/ penalty and confiscation of goods.

Baggage rules 2016

The question is whether the Baggage Rules, 2016 have any application to the gold bangles worn by the Applicants also arises for consideration?

Rule 3:Passenger arriving from countries other than Nepal, Bhutan or Myanmar

An Indian resident or a foreigner residing in India or a tourist of Indian origin, not being an infant arriving from any country other than Nepal, Bhutan or Myanmar, shall be allowed clearance free of duty articles in his bona fide baggage, that is to say :-

 

  • used personal effects and travel souvenirs; and
  • articles other than those mentioned in Annexure-I, upto the value of fifty thousand rupees if these are carried on the person or in the accompanied baggage of the passenger.

 

Provided that a tourist of foreign origin, not being an infant, shall be allowed clearance free of duty articles in his bona fide baggage, that is to say,

 

  • used personal effects and travel souvenirs; and
  • articles other than those mentioned in Annexure- I, upto the value of fifteen thousand rupees if these are carried on the person or in the accompanied baggage of the passenger.

 

Provided further that where the passenger is an infant, only used personal effects shall be allowed duty free.

Explanation.- The free allowance of a passenger under this rule shall not be allowed to pool with the free allowance of any other passenger.”

Rule 5  Jewellery:

A passenger residing abroad for more than one year, on  return to India, shall be allowed clearance free of duty in   his bona fide baggage of jewellery upto a weight, of twenty grams with a value cap of fifty thousand rupees if brought by a gentleman passenger, or forty grams with a value cap of one lakh rupees if brought by a lady passenger.

ANNEXURE–I

(See rule 3, 4 and 6)

 

  • Fire arms.
  • Cartridges of fire arms exceeding 50.
  • Cigarettes exceeding 100 sticks or cigars exceeding 25 or tobacco exceeding 125 gms.
  • Alcoholic liquor or wines in excess of two litres.
  • Gold or silver in any form other than ornaments.
  • Flat Panel (Liquid Crystal Display/Light-Emitting Diode/ Plasma) television.”

 

PROVISIONS UNDER WHICH PASSENGERS MADE LIABLE.

Section 111. Confiscation of improperly imported goods, etc.—

The following goods brought from a place outside India shall be liable to confiscation:—

 

  • any goods imported by sea or air which are unloaded or attempted to be unloaded at any place other than a customs port or customs airport appointed under clause (a) of section 7 for the unloading of such goods.
  • any goods imported by land or inland water through any route other than a route specified in a notification issued under clause (c) of section 7 for the import of such goods.
  • any dutiable or prohibited goods brought into any bay, gulf, creek or tidal river for the purpose of being landed at a place other than a customs port.
  • any goods which are imported or attempted to be imported or are brought within the Indian customs waters for the purpose of being imported, contrary to any prohibition imposed by or under this Act or any other law for the time being in force.
  • any dutiable or prohibited goods found concealed in any manner in any conveyance.
  • any dutiable or prohibited goods required to be mentioned under the regulations in an import manifest or import report which are not so mentioned.
  • any dutiable or prohibited goods which are unloaded from a conveyance in contravention of the provisions of section 32, other than goods inadvertently unloaded but included in the record kept under sub-section (2) of section 45.
  • any dutiable or prohibited goods unloaded or attempted to be unloaded in contravention of the provisions of section 33 or section 34.
  • any dutiable or prohibited goods found concealed in any manner in any package either before or after the unloading thereof.
  • any dutiable or prohibited goods removed or attempted to be removed from a customs area or a warehouse without the permission of the proper officer or contrary to the terms of such permission.
  • any dutiable or prohibited goods imported by land in respect of which the order permitting clearance of the goods required to be produced under section 109 is not produced or which do not correspond in any material particular with the specification contained therein.
  • any dutiable or prohibited goods which are not included or are in excess of those included in the entry made under this Act, or in the case of baggage in the declaration made under section 77.
  • any goods which do not correspond in respect of value or in any other particular] with the entry made under this Act or in the case of baggage with the declaration made under section 77 in respect thereof or in the case of goods under transhipment, with the declaration for transhipment referred to in the proviso to sub-section (1) of section 54.
  • any dutiable or prohibited goods transisted with or without transhipment or attempted to be so transited in contravention of the provisions of Chapter VIII.
  • any goods exempted, subject to any condition, from duty or any prohibition in respect of the import thereof under this Act or any other law for the time being in force, in respect of which the condition is not observed unless the non-observance of the condition was sanctioned by the proper officer 
  • any notified goods in relation to which any provisions of Chapter IVA or of any rule made under this Act for carrying out the purposes of that Chapter have been contravened.”

 

 

Section 77  Declaration by owner of baggage.—The owner of any baggage shall, for the purpose of clearing it,  make a declaration of its contents to the proper officer.”

Section 112 Penalty for improper importation of goods, etc. —Any person—

 

  • who, in relation to any goods, does or omits to do any act which act or omission would render such goods liable to confiscation under section 111, or abets the doing or omission of such an act, or
  • who acquires possession of or is in any way concerned in carrying, removing, depositing, harbouring, keeping, concealing, selling or purchasing, or in any other manner dealing with any goods which he knows or has reason to believe are liable to confiscation under section 111, shall be liable.
  • in the case of goods in respect of which any prohibition is in force under this Act or any other law for the time being in force, to a penalty ,not exceeding the value of the goods or five thousand rupees, whichever is the greater.
  • in the case of dutiable goods, other than prohibited goods, to a penalty not exceeding the duty sought to be evaded on such goods or five thousand rupees, whichever is the greater;
  • in the case of goods in respect of which the value stated in the entry made under this Act or in the case of baggage, in the declaration made under section 77 (in either case hereafter in this section referred to as the declared value) is higher than the value thereof, to a penalty not exceeding the difference between the declared value and the value thereof or five thousand rupees], whichever is the greater.
  • in the case of goods falling both under clauses (i) and (iii), to a penalty 220 not exceeding the value of the goods or the difference between the declared value and the value thereof or five thousand rupees], whichever is the highest.
  • in the case of goods falling both under clauses (ii) and (iii), to a penalty 221 not exceeding the duty sought to be evaded on such goods or the difference between the declared value and the value thereof or five thousand rupees,whichever is the highest.

 

 

NOW QUESTION ARISES WHETHER THERE IS NEED FOR ABSOLUTE CONFISCATION OR NOT?

The issue of absolute confiscation of goods and option of redemption thereof has been subjected to judicial interpretation in the past with rulings of the High Court and Tribunal on the same.

In case of : Commissioner Of Customs … vs Uma Shankar Verma Calcutta High Court:

Para 10

“…..

has held that if the goods are prohibited then the option is with the Customs Authority to confiscate without giving any option to pay fine in lieu thereof but  when the goods are not prohibited then the Customs Authority has no other option but to allow grant of an option to the party to pay a fine in lieu of confiscation.

  ….”

In the case of :Kuber Casting Private Limited v. Commissioner of Commissioner of Customs, Amritsar-( Tribunal-Chandigarh):

Para 5

“….

As the goods impugned are not restricted goods, therefore, they can be released on payment of redemption fine and penalty, the Tribunal held that the redemption fine and penalty imposed on the appellant highly excessive and the goods cannot be held for confiscation on the charge of misdeclaration of Description.

….”

 

CONFISCATION OF GOLD NOT DECLARED

Central board of indirect tax and customs, vide their Letter No.  495/5/92-CUS-VI dated 10.5.93 have instructed that in case of non-declaration of gold even in respect of passengers otherwise eligible to bring gold should be absolutely confiscated.

In Shri Kamlesh Kumar In re 1993(67) ELT 1000, The Government of India in revision, it was held that such an option cannot be claimed as a right. This is because the condition regarding payment of duty in forign exchange is not satisfied (as goods were not declared) and hence these become ‘prohibited goods’. However, if a passenger is otherwise eligible to import gold, the option to pay redemption fine may be given considering all aspects. 

CONFISCATION EVEN IF DECLARATION MADE

In R Karuppan v. R Namachivayam 1998 ElT 214 

Hon’ble Madras High Court (Divisional Bench) , it was held that goods can be confiscated and penalty imposed even if the passenger had voluntarily declared the goods in his baggage.

GENERAL DEFENSE AVAILABLE

Section 2(3):“Section 2(3):includes unaccompanied baggage but does not include motor vehicles.”
Section 2(39):“Section 2(39): “smuggling”, in relation to any goods, means any act or omission which will render such goods liable to confiscation under section 111 or section 113.
Section (33):“Section (33):“prohibited goods” means any goods the import or export of which is subject to any prohibition under this Act or any other law for the time being in force but does not include any such goods in respect of which the conditions subject to which the goods are permitted to be imported or exported, have been complied with.

[While prohibited and restricted items may sound the same, there is an actual difference – prohibited items must never be sent in the post, while restricted items may be sent in the post, but restrictions will apply.]”

 

Section 125. Option to pay fine in lieu of confiscation

 

  • Whenever confiscation of any goods is authorised by this Act, the officer adjudging it may, in the case of any goods, the importation or exportation whereof is prohibited under this Act or under any other law for the time being in force, and shall, in the case of any other goods, give to the owner of the goods an option to pay in lieu of confiscation such fine as the said officer thinks fit:

 

Provided that, without prejudice to the provisions of the proviso to subsection (2) of Section 115, such fine shall not exceed the market price of the goods confiscated, less in the case of imported goods the duty chargeable therein.

 

 

  • Where any fine in lieu of confiscation of goods is imposed under  subsection (1), the owner of such goods or the person referred to in Sub-section (1), shall, in addition, be liable to any duty and charges payable in respect of such goods.”

 

In Collector of Customs, Bombay vs M/s Elephanata Oil and Industries Ltd.

“Hon’ble Supreme Court held that from the perusal of Section 112 and 125 of Customs Act 1962 it is apparent that both operate in different fields, namely, one requires imposition of penalty and other provides for confiscation of improperly imported goods section 111 provides that goods brought from the place outside India are liable to confiscation, discretion is given to the authority to impose penalty . Further Section 125 empowers confiscation of such goods and thereafter , confiscated goods vest in the Central Government. The Section further empowers the authority to give an option to the owner or the person from which goods are seized to pay a fine lieu of such confiscation for return of goods and the fine is also limited up to the market price of the goods. Therefore, levy of fine in lieu of confiscation is in addition to levy of penalty impossible under Section 112.”

CONCLUSION

in our respectful opinion the body of the passenger is not ‘baggage’, gold ornament worn by passengers need not be declared “Section 2(3): “baggage” includes unaccompanied baggage but does  not include motor vehicles.” In vigneswaran Sethuraman v. Union Of India WP(C).No. 6281 of 2014 (I) Hon’ble High Court Of Kerala At Ernakulam stated that

that the body of a passenger is not ‘baggage’ Hence, gold ornaments worn by passengers need not to be declared. Baggage rules do not prohibit a foreign tourist entering into india from wearing a gold chain or other gold jewellery.. In Kartar Singh V. State of Punjab The Hon’ble Supreme Court of India has stated  and held that. “It is the basic principle of legal jurisprudence that an enactment is void for vagueness if its prohibitions are not clearly defined. Vague laws offend several important values. It is insisted or emphasised that laws should give the person of ordinary intelligence a reasonable opportunity to know what is prohibited, so that he may act accordingly. Vague laws may trap the innocent by not providing fair warning. Such a law impermissibly delegates basic policy matters to policemen and also judges for resolution on an ad hoc and subjective basis, with the attendant dangers of arbitrary and discriminatory application. More so uncertain and undefined words deployed inevitably lead citizens to “steer far wider of the unlawful zone….than if the boundaries of the forbidden areas were clearly marked.”. 

 

The Customs Act, 1962 or the Baggage Rules, 2016 do not stipulate that a foreign tourist or Indian Resident entering India cannot wear gold ornaments on his body. The Customs Act, 1962 and the Baggage Rules, 2016 do not provide sufficient warning to foreign tourists or Indian residents entering India that wearing a gold chain is prohibited. The Act and the Rules do not even remotely indicate that a foreign tourist or indian resident entering India cannot wear a gold chain on his person. In other words, foreign tourists entering India are in a boundless sea of uncertainty as to whether it is prohibited or not. As the Customs Act, 1962 and the rules framed thereunder contemplate confiscation and levy of penalty as also prosecution, the State has a duty to specify with a degree of certainty as to what is prohibited and what is not, without leaving it to the foreign tourist to guess what is prohibited and what is not.

 

Customs Law and Procedures

Customs Law and Procedures

Introduction

Customs duty is a tax which the State collects on goods imported into or exported out of the boundaries of a country. Customs duties now form a significant source of revenue for all countries, more so in the case of developing countries like India. loopchain technology to be applied to Import Customs Clearance Procedure for the Korea Customs Service | by ICON Foundation | Hello ICON World | MediumIn India, customs duties are levied on the goods and at the rates specified in the Schedules to the Customs Tariff Act, 1975. The taxable event is import into export from India. Export duties are practically non-existent at present. They are levied occasionally to mop up excess profitability in international price of goods in respect of which domestic prices may be low at given time. But sweep of import duties is very wide, almost universal, barring a few goods like food grains, fertilizer, life saving drugs and equipment etc. Import duties generally consist of the following: 

  1. Basic duty. It may be at the standard rate or, in the case of import from some countries, at the preferential rate.
  2. Additional customs duty equal to central excise duty leviable on like goods produced or manufactured in India. It is commonly referred to as countervailing duty or C.V.D.
  3. Special additional duty of Customs at the rate of 4% in order to provide a level playing field to indigenous goods which have to bear sales tax. This duty is to computed on the aggregate of–
  1. assessable value; 
  2. basic duty of Customs;
  3. surcharge; and
  4. additional duty of Customs leviable under section 3 of the Customs Tariff Act, 1975 (c.v.d.)
  1. Additional duty of Customs at the rate of Re. 1/- per liter on imported motor spirit (petrol) and high speed diesel oil.

Anti-dumping duty/Safeguard duty for import to specified goods with a view to protecting domestic industry from unfair injury.

Import & Export through Courier

In order to regulate the import and export, of light weight goods into and out of the country the Government of India had framed Courier Imports (Clearance) Regulation in 1995 which were revised by framing an up to date Courier Imports and Exports (Clearance) Regulations in 1998. Private companies have been registered as authorised couriers in the International Airports at Mumbai, Delhi, Chennai, Calcutta, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad and Jaipur by the Customs Commissioner of the respective places.

TYPE OF GOODS THAT CAN BE SENT

 All types of goods can be sent through the courier mode into India and out of India except few articles. The goods which are prohibited for import through courier are:

  1. Animals & parts thereof or plants & parts thereof, 
  2. Perishable goods, 
  3. Publications containing maps showing incorrect boundaries of India,
  4. Gold or silver in any form,
  5. Precious and semi precious stones & Studded jewellery,
  6. Chemicals of chapter 28, 29 & 38 of the first schedule to Customs Tariff Act which need testing

Similarly, the export of the following goods are also restricted:

  1. Goods which are subject to levy of any duty on their export,
  2. Goods proposed to be exported with claim for Draw of Customs duty,
  3. Goods exported under Duty Entitlement Pass Book Schemes or Duty Exemption Scheme or Export Promotion Capital Goods Scheme, and
  4. Goods where the value of consignment is above Rs. 25,000/- and Waiver from the RBI not to bring in Foreign Exchange is not available, 

SAMPLES, GIFTS AND TRADE GOODS 

  1. Document of any form including messages, information or data recorded on papers, cards, photographs which are not subjected to any prohibition or restrictions can be imported and exported. 
  2. Bonafide commercial samples can be imported through courier provided the said samples are being received free of cost (see Import of Samples). Similarly, gifts from persons abroad up to the value of Rs. 5,000/- and all the life saving drugs and equipment which are not chargeable to any duty at present (see Notification 20/99-Cus) can also be sent to India through the courier mode. 
  3. Commercial goods which are dutiable can also be imported through the courier without any restriction of quantity subject to payment of duty by the courier company at the time of clearance of the said goods from the Customs. 

IMPORTANT CLARIFICATIONS

Whether the value of Rs. 5,000/- for the gift or the commercial samples means the value of the goods in India or the country of sender?

The value of Rs. 5,000/- is the export value of the goods excluding locally refundable taxes like VAT in the country from where the goods have been dispatched. In case of gifts and samples up to Rs. 5000/- it does not include freight or courier charges and insurance. However, in case of goods valued above Rs. 5000/- it freight and insurance would be added to calculate the duty payable. The sender may not necessarily be residing in the country from where the goods have been dispatched. A sender in the U.K. can send goods from South Korea to India. The value in South Korea would be taken into consideration.

What types of goods cannot be sent as gift or commercial samples through courier?

 All types of goods which are banned for import under the Foreign Trade (Development and Regulation) Act, 1992 are banned for import into India even as gifts or as commercial samples. The example of such goods are wild animals, wild birds or parts of wild animals and birds, narcotic drugs like opium, marijuana, ivory, arms like revolvers or pistols or other hand guns and ammunitions

 Can a person send jewellery to any manufacturer in India as sample?

 Gold jewellery or studded jewellery including samples thereof is not allowed to be imported by or sent to ordinary persons in India through courier route. However, the units in export processing zones or Export Oriented Units are allowed to import gems and jewellery, including samples thereof, through an authorised courier. However, the jewellery and its samples can be exported by all units through the courier.

 Why is there a prohibition for import of chemicals and perishable goods even of low value?

 It is not convenient to handle perishable goods through normal courier mode. The system of import or export of goods through courier is designed for very fast movement through the Customs. The chemicals imported may require testing of the same to ascertain its identity which would need some time and would also delay the processing of other consignments through courier. Therefore, the import of chemicals have been prohibited through courier route.

Chemicals can be sent through the same courier company who would submit it separately at the Air Cargo Complex for clearance. The Air Cargo Complex is invariably situated beside the Courier Terminal. However, the clearance is likely to take more time.

 Is there any limit of weight and size of the package that can be sent through the courier?

Packages up to 70 Kgs. of weight can be imported to India through courier mode. However, there is no such weight limit for export of goods through courier from India.

Why there is a restriction on goods to be exported with claim for Draw or any duty entitlement pass-book scheme of Export Promotion Capital Goods Scheme?

Under these schemes additional paper work is involved and, therefore, it delays clearance of this packet and in addition clearance of other packages is also delayed. However, these consignments can be cleared through the air-cargo complex by the same courier company. Invariably the air cargo complex and the courier terminal are situated side by side and, therefore, there is no inconvenience to the exporters.

HOW DUTY IS PAID, IF LEVIABLE?

 If the duty is small, the Courier Company makes the payment and collects it from the receiver at the time of delivery of the goods. If the duty assessed is high, they advise the party of the arrival of the goods and the party clears the goods directly from the Customs. The courier can get the goods detained, inform the client and with his consent make the payment of duty.

Machinery parts are sent abroad through couriers for repairs and reconditioning etc. what procedure is to be adopted during export of the said goods.

While sending the goods abroad, proper documents should accompany the package. The invoice may be attested by the Customs and a copy retained to enable Customs to identify the goods at the time of re-import of the said goods. The repairer may be advised to enclose a copy of sender invoice along with their own invoice. The repairer may be advised to clearly mention their repair charges for similar goods in the invoice, even if they have done it free. Along with invoice or on its body list of jobs carried out (fault list) may be given.

If part of the machinery cannot be repaired or replaced then during re-import such machinery has to bear duty as if it is being imported. The invoice should show separately cost of such parts/raw materials to enable proper valuation.

Refer to Notification No. 87/98-Cus (NT) dt. 9.11.98

Import of Gifts

All goods imported into India from abroad is liable to duties of Customs under

Section 12 of the Customs Act and also is liable to all the restrictions under the Foreign Trade (Development & Regulations) Act 1992. However, the Government has exempted gifts received from abroad by persons residing in India from the whole of duties of Customs and from restriction under FT (D&R) Act. At present, import of goods upto the value of Rs. 5,000/- is allowed as gift, duty free. This exemption is allowed only for bona fide gifts imported by air or post. For the purpose of calculation of this value of Rs. 5,000/- the air freight or postal charges paid are not added.

IMPORTANT CLARIFICATIONS

1. The value of Rs. 5,000/- is the value of the goods in the country from where the goods have been dispatched. The sender may not necessarily be residing in the country from where the goods have been dispatched.

2. The import has to be only through Air or through Post Parcel. 3. Any person abroad can send gifts. There is no specific restriction that only relatives can send the goods. Business associated, friends, relatives, companies or acquaintances can also send the gifts to residents in India.

ELEMENTS NECESSARY FOR DRAW UNDER SECTION 74 

The elements necessary to claim drawback are:

  1. The goods on which drawback is claimed must have been previously imported;
  2. Import duty must have been paid on these goods when they were imported;
  3. The goods should be entered for export within two years from the date of payment of duty on their importation (whether provisional or final duty). The period can be further extended to three years by the Commissioner of Customs on sufficient cause being shown.
  4. The goods are identified as the goods imported.
  5. The goods must be capable of being identified as imported goods.
  6. The goods must actually be re-exported to any place outside India.
  7. The market price of such goods must not be less than the amount of drawback claimed.
  8. The amount of drawback should not be less than Rs. 50/- as per Section 76-(1) (c) of the Customs Act. 

PROCEDURE TO CLAIM DRAW UNDER SECTION 74.

Drawback claims under Section 74 of the Customs Act are now being processed manually. To claim drawback under Section 74, the exporter should file the shipping bill under claim for drawback in the prescribed form and after assessment the goods are to be examined by the Customs officers for purposes of physical identification. After shipment, the claim is filed in the department, for sanction of drawback. The pre-receipted drawback payment order has to be forwarded to the drawback department upon which cheque is issued. If the information submitted by the exporter is insufficient to process the claim, a deficiency memo will be issued to the exporter seeking further information or documents to process the claim. On compliance the claims will be processed in the usual manner.

SUPPORTING DOCUMENTS REQUIRED FOR PROCESSING DRAW CLAIM UNDER SECTION 74 

  1. Triplicate copy of the Shipping Bill bearing examination report recorded by the proper officer of the customs at the time of export.
  2. Copy of the Bill of entry or any other prescribed documents against which goods were cleared for importation.
  3. Import invoice.
  4. Evidence of payment of duty paid at the time of importation of goods.
  5. Permission from the Reserve Bank of India for re-exports of goods, wherever necessary.
  6. Export invoice and packing list.
  7. Copy of the Bill of Lading or Airway bill. 
  8. Any other documents as may be specified in the deficiency Memo.

TIME LIMIT UNDER SECTION 74

In order to claim drawback under Section 74 the goods should be entered for export within two years from the date of payment of duty on the importation thereof. Provided that in any particular case the period of two years may on sufficient cause shown be extended by the by the Central Board of Customs and Central Excise by such period as it may deem fit.

The time limit have to be computed from the date of payment of duty up to the date of entry of goods for export under Sec 50 of the Customs Act for export by air or sea, under Section 77 for baggage items and Under Section 83 of the Customs Act for export by post

The claims should be filed in the manner prescribed under Rule 5 of Re-export of Imported Goods(Drawback of Customs Duties) Rules,1995, read with Public Notices issued by the Custom Houses. The time limit for filing the claim is three months from the date of let export order. If the exporter was prevented by sufficient cause from filing the claims within three months, the Asst. Commissioner of Customs can relax the time limit by three months.

The claim for drawback is processed under the following systems:

  1. Manual System
  2. EDI System
  3. By Post

PROCEDURE FOR CLAIMING DRAW UNDER SECTION 75 OF THE CUSTOMS ACT UNDER THE MANUAL SYSTEM: 

For the purpose of claiming drawback, the exporter is required to file a drawback-shipping bill in the prescribed Format as required under Rule 13 along with the necessary declaration. The goods after assessment are examined by the officers posted in the Examination Shed as required for each individual case. The examination report will indicate the nature of goods in terms of drawback schedule for classification and application of correct rate. Samples may have to be drawn for testing by lab in respect of chemicals, synthetic fabrics’ etc as specified from time to time to confirm the declarations in the export documents. The triplicate Copy if the drawback shipping bill which contain the examination report is the claim copy

SUPPORTING DOCUMENTS REQUIRED FOR PROCESSING THE CLAIM. 

  1. Triplicate of the Shipping Bill
  2. Copy of the Bank Certified Invoices.
  3. Copy of the Bill Lading/Airway Bill
  4. Sixtuplicate Copy of AR-4 wherever applicable
  5. Freight and Insurance certificate wherever the contract is CIF / C&F
  6. Copy of the Test report where the goods are required to be tested
  7. Copy of the Brand rate letters where the drawback claim is against the Brand rate
  8. Mate receipt
  9. Copy of the Contract or Letter of credit as the case may be
  10. Modvat Declaration wherever applicable
  11. Any declaration required as per foot note of the Drawback schedule
  12. Worksheet showing the drawback amount claimed
  13. DEEC Book and license copy where applicable.
  14. Transshipment certificate where applicable
  15. Proof of foreign agency commission paid if any
  16. Blank acknowledgement card in duplicate
  17. Pre–receipt for drawback amount on the reverse of Shipping Bill duly signed on the Rs1/- revenue stamp 

The claims are settled and passed by the appraiser if the amount sanctioned is below Rs 1,00,000/- and by the Assistant Commissioner, if the amount of drawback exceeds Rs1.00.000/-. After pre-audit, the cheques are issued to the designated banks for credit to the exporters account or handed over to the authorized representative of the exporter. For further details refer to the Public Notices issued by the concerned Custom Houses/ Central Excise Commissionerate. 

PROCESSING OF DRAW CLAIMS UNDER SECTION 75 OF THE CUSTOMS ACT UNDER THE EDI SYSTEM 

  1. Computerized processing of shipping bills is in vogue at over 19 ports in India. The shipping bills are processed under the Indian Customs EDI systems (ICES).
  2. Under the system, there would be no processing of paper documents except statutory declarations and endorsements until ‘let export’ order stage. Till such time exporters / CHAs are given access to file documents through the Service centre set up in the Custom Houses / Air Cargo complexes.
  3. Processing of drawback claims under the system will be applicable for all exports except in respect of the claims under Section 74 of the Customs Act and those relating to EPZ/100% EOU.
  4. For the excluded categories the export Shipping Bills will be filed manually and processed by AC Drawback, as hitherto. Under the EDI system there is no need for filing separate drawback claims. The shipping bill itself treated as drawback claim.
  5. In the EDI system the exporters are required to open their accounts with the Bank nominated by the Custom Houses/ ACC. This has to be done to enable direct credit of drawback amount to their accounts, obviating the need for issue of cheques.
  6. For export of goods under claim for drawback, the exporters will file S.D.F declaration in Annexure B in lieu of GR –1 FORM. The declaration in Annexure C would also be filed when the export goods are presented at the Export shed for examination and Let export. In addition they should file a declaration if any in the appendices applicable to the goods mentioned in the Public Notices issued by the Customs Houses / ACC for processing Shipping Bills under the EDI system.
  7. The rates of drawback under S.S Nos. are dependent upon conditions mentioned against them in the Drawback Schedule. To enable the EDI system to process the claims correctly exporters are advised to give the correct Sl.No. of relevant appendix applicable to their case. If the relevant declarations are not filed along with the Shipping Bill the system will not process the drawback claims. The exporters are therefore advised to file the declaration along with the Shipping Bills.
  8. After actual export of the goods, the drawback claims will be processed through the system on first come first served basis. The status of Shipping Bills and sanction of drawback claim can be ascertained from the query counter set up at the Service centre. If any query has been raised or deficiency noticed, the same will be shown on the terminal provided there. The exporter or his authorised representative may obtain a printout of the query/deficiency form the Service Centre if he so desires. The claim will come in Que. of the system as soon the reply is entered.
  9. Shipping Bills in respect of goods under claim for drawback against brand rates would also be processed in the same manner, except that drawback would be sanctioned only after the original brand letter is produced to AC Export and is entered in the system. The exporter should specify the S.S No 98.01 for such provisional claim
  10. All the claims sanctioned on a particular day will be enumerated in a scroll and transferred to the Nominated Bank through the system. The Bank will credit the drawback amount in their respective accounts of the exporters on the next day. Bank will send a fortnightly statement to the exporters of such credits made in their accounts.
  11. The steamer agents / Airlines will transfer the EGM electronically to the system so that the physical Export of goods is confirmed. The system will process the claims only on receipt of the EGM. 
  1. PROCEDURE FOR CLAIMING DRAW ON EXPORT BY POST- SECTION 75 OF THE CUSTOMS ACT 

For claiming drawback on goods exported by post, exporter is required to file his claim at the time of booking parcel with the postal authorities in the form prescribed in the Rules. The date of receipt of this form from the postal authorities by the Customs Authorities shall be treated as date of filing claim by the exporter for the purpose of Section 75 A of the Customs Act. Thus drawback is paid to the exporter within three months from the date of receipt of claim from the postal authorities. On receipt of the claim form, intimation is to be given to he exporter. Where claim form is incomplete a deficiency memo is issued within fifteen days of its receipt form the postal authorities. The exporter can resubmit this form after compliance with deficiencies within a period of 30 days. If such a claim is found to be in order, the same is acknowledged and the period of three months for payment of drawback in terms of Section 75 in such cases shall commence form the date of such acknowledgement.

TIME LIMIT UNDER SECTION 75

The claims should be filed in the manner prescribed under Rule 13, read with Public Notices issued by the Custom Houses. The time limit for filing the claim is three months from the date of let export order. If the exporter was prevented by sufficient cause FORM filing the claims within three months, the Asst. Commissioner of Customs can relax the time limit by three months and the Commissioner of Customs can relax the time limit for a period of nine months. Duties Rebated Under Drawback Scheme

Under the drawback scheme, the relief is given from the burden of duty incidence of Customs & Central Excise on basic inputs like raw materials. Components, Intermediates and packing materials used at various stages of production/manufacture. No relief of drawback is extended to duties suffered on capital goods, fuels and consumables used in relation to the manufacture of the export goods. It may also be noted that no relief of Sales Tax or Octroi or any other indirect tax is given by way of drawback. The finished stage of excise duties on the export product is also not reimbursed under this scheme and there are separate provisions for rebate of such finished stage duties under the Central Excises and Salt Act 1944 and the Rules framed thereunder.

Interest Payment

A new Section 75 A has been incorporated in the Customs Act to provide for payment of interest on delayed payment of drawback. Interest at the rate of 15% P.A. is payable to the exporters if the claim is not settled within three months from the date of issue of acknowledgement by the department. Acknowledgement under Rule 13(I) is issued only if the claim is complete in all respect. If the claim is deficient, the department within 15 days from the date of filing the claim will issue a deficiency memo. The exporter is required to comply with the deficiency memo within 30 days from the date of receipt of deficiency memo. The time limit in these cases will be completed after receipt of compliance and issue of acknowledgement card. Similarly, where an exporter has been paid erroneous or excess drawback and fails to repay the same within three months from the date of demand, he is liable to pay interest at the rate of 20% P.A.

Supplementary Chain

If the exporter finds that the amount of drawback paid is less than what he is entitled to, there is a provision for claiming supplementary drawback claims in the prescribed Format Under Rule 15 of the Drawback Rules, 1995. The time limit filing supplementary claim is three months from the date of original settlement.

CONCLUSION

Customs Duty is a tariff or tax imposed on goods when transported across international borders. The purpose of Customs Duty is to protect each country’s economy, residents, jobs, environment, etc., by controlling the flow of goods, especially restrictive and prohibited goods, into and out of the country.

IBC and Admiralty Law

IBC and Admiralty Law

INTRODUCTION.

In rem admiralty proceedings and the insolvency of a ship owner is fraught with tension. The advantage of arresting a ship, which elevates a maritime claimant to the status of a secured creditor, sits uncomfortably with principles of insolvency law, which do not contemplate an action in rem and the peculiar consequences that follow from it.

Interaction Between Admiralty Courts And Company Courts: A Critical Analysis Of Raj Shipping Case

DETAIL ANALYSIS.

The conflict between these two special jurisdictions came to a head before the Bombay High Court, which in a recent judgement in Raj Shipping Agencies Vs Barge Madhwa and Anr, attempted to reconcile the irreconcilable.

FACTS OF THE CASE.

Arrest orders were passed by the Bombay High Court against vessels, whose owners were insolvent. The High Court issued a winding up order against one of the ship owners under the Companies Act, 1956 (“Companies Act”). In parallel, insolvency proceedings were commenced against another ship owner by the National Company Law Tribunal and a moratorium ordered against commencement or continuation of all proceedings against that owner and its assets under the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016 (IBC).

The official liquidator in the winding up proceedings objected to the continuation of the admiralty actions without the leave of the Company Court under Section 446 of Companies Act, 1956. As regards the insolvency proceedings against the other vessel owner, the maritime claimants argued that the moratorium under the IBC would not prevent continuation of the admiralty actions in the Bombay High Court.

The questions of law that arose for consideration were: –

  1.   Is there a conflict between actions in rem filed under the Admiralty Act and IBC and if so, how is the conflict to be resolved?
  2.   Whether leave under Section 446(1) of the Companies Act is required for continuation of an Admiralty action where a winding up order has been made or the Official Liquidator has been appointed?

Issue 1: Is there a conflict between actions in rem filed under the Admiralty Act and IBC and if so, how is the conflict to be resolved?

The Court after hearing elaborate submissions, observed that its endeavour would be to give effect to both statutes and their objectives so as to avoid conflict. The judgement proceeded to analyse the distinction between an action in rem under the Admiralty Act and an action in personam under IBC. The Court reasoned that an action in rem is not an action against the corporate debtor/owner of the ship or the assets of the corporate debtor/owner. It accordingly concluded that the moratorium under the IBC would not apply to an action in rem under the Admiralty Act for arrest of the ship and consequently would not prevent the commencement of admiralty proceedings.

However, with a view to avoiding a clash between the two jurisdictions, it ruled that an action in rem could be commenced but not continued, as this would defeat the moratorium and the very purpose of the insolvency process under the IBC. The Court held that a maritime claimant had a statutory right in rem that could not be subordinated to the IBC, which entitled it to arrest the ship, but not to continue proceedings, so as to give the corporate debtor the time and opportunity to be rescued/rehabilitated. Those maritime claimants who arrested the ship according to the Court, would be characterized as secured creditors for insolvency purposes.

According to the court, maritime claimants apart from being treated as secured creditors, should ordinarily be ascribed full value for their claim and the scheme of priorities under the Admiralty Act should be adopted in the resolution plan. The Court ruled that vessels arrested before the moratorium can only be released by the Admiralty Court, upon full payment of security.

The Court similarly reasoned that Section 33(5) of the IBC which bars the commencement or continuation of proceedings in liquidation, would not apply to an action in rem, as the claim is against the res and not against the corporate debtor.

Issue 2: Whether leave under Section 446(1) of the Companies Act is required for the continuation of an Admiralty action where a winding up order has been made or the Official Liquidator has been appointed that owned the ship?

The Court observed that the Admiralty Act, 2017 is a consolidating enactment dealing with arrest of ships, maritime claims, judicial sale of ships and determination of priorities. The jurisdiction of the Admiralty Court was found to be special, unlike that of regular civil courts. A judicial sale of a ship by an Admiralty Court in a public auction is free from all prior claims, liens and encumbrances and the purchaser at the auction acquires a clean title free from any maritime liens, claims or encumbrances. This is unlike a sale of property conducted by the Company Court. The Court accordingly held that no leave of the Company court was required as the Admiralty Act, 2017 being a special enactment, would prevail over Companies Act, 1956.

 

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ARREST OF A SHIP UNDER ADMIRALTY LAW / MARITIME LAW

ARREST OF A SHIP UNDER ADMIRALTY LAW / MARITIME LAW

 

INTRODUCTION

“The safety of the people shall be the highest law” – Marcus Tullius Cicero

Ship Arrest Warrantied. Maritime Lawyers on Ship Arrest in Spain - GMM Law | Maritime Class Net

India has a long-standing history in dealing with the sea and has had a distinguished tradition for several years with trade and commerce, both within the region and beyond its territorial borders. India’s maritime history dates back to the 3rd millennium BCE, and since then many ships have sailed from India and, to India. Therefore, though there was no codified law as the one which exists today, the customs and regulations concerning sea and maritime activities have been in existence since time immemorial.

This article analyses the Maritime Law of India and the Law relating to ship arrests, including the jurisdiction, permissible claims and procedural aspects of ship arrests in India.

Before Independence, the laws relating to maritime laws in India were governed under the British government. The Coasting Vessels Act, 1838, Inland Steam Vessels Act, 1917, Admiralty Offences (Colonial) Act, 1849, Indian Registration of Ships Act, 1841, Indian Ports Act, 1908, Control of Shipping Act, 1947 are some of the regulations which deal with various aspects of maritime in India.

MEANING OF MARITIME LAW

In simple words, Maritime Law is a set of rules and regulations which govern the matters relating to sea and ships. It is also known as admiralty law. Numerous legal luminaries have provided their definition of the term ‘maritime law.’ Some of them are as follows:

Professor Grant Gilmore and Charles L. Black, in their ‘Law of Admiralty’, define maritime or Admiralty Law as the following:

”A corpus of rules, concepts and legal practices governing certain centrally important concerns of the business of carrying goods and passengers by water.”

Black’s Law dictionary defines maritime Law as- “the body of law governing marine commerce and navigation, the carriage at of persons and property, and marine affairs in general; the rules governing contract, tort and workers’ compensation claims or relating to commerce on or over water.”

The definitions, given above covers a wide range of activities concerning the sea, however now with the evolution of Law, the Maritime Law is comprehensive, and it is that branch of jurisprudence which covers all the matters relating to sea and ships.

SHIP ARREST

Ship arrest is a process in which a ship is prevented from trading or moving until the matter in question is decided. It is an exclusive jurisdiction that is granted to an admiralty court to detain a vessel to secure a maritime claim.

Article 2 of the International Convention Relating to the Arrest of Sea-Going Ships, 1952 defines the term arrest as the following:

“(2) “Arrest” means the detention of a ship by judicial process to secure a maritime claim, but does not include the seizure of a ship in execution or satisfaction of a judgment.”

The main purpose of arrest is to obtain security for satisfaction of judgment in the action in rem and it is necessary to arrest the ship in order to establish jurisdiction. Merchant ships of different nationalities travel from port to port carrying goods or passengers. They incur liabilities in the course of their voyage and they subject themselves to the jurisdiction of foreign States when they enter the waters of those States. They are liable to be arrested for the enforcement of maritime claims, or seized in execution or satisfaction of judgments in legal actions arising out of collisions; salvage, loss of life or personal injury, loss of or damage to goods and the like. They are liable to be detained or confiscated by the authorities of foreign States for violating their customs, regulations, safety measures, rules of the road, health regulations, and for other causes. The coastal State may exercise its criminal jurisdiction on board the vessel for the purpose of arrest or investigation in connection with certain serious crimes. In the course of an international voyage, a vessel thus subjects itself to the public and private laws of various countries. A ship travelling from port to port stays very briefly in any one port. A plaintiff seeking to enforce his maritime claim against a foreign ship has no effective remedy once it has sailed away and if the foreign owner has neither property nor residence within jurisdiction. The plaintiff may therefore detain the ship by obtaining an order of attachment whenever it is feared that the ship is likely to slip out of jurisdiction, thus leaving the plaintiff without any security.

RATIONALITY

A ship arrest may be exercised under the authority of a court having admiralty jurisdiction, for the following reasons:

  1. Loss of life
  2. Loss of property
  3. Salvage
  4. Collision
  5. Execution of a decree
  6. Violation of customs, usages, regulations or norms

JURISDICTION OF INDIAN COURTS

Before India gained Independence, under The Colonial Court of Admiralty Act, 1890, the High Court of Bombay, Madras and Calcutta were the only judicial authorities competent to deal with matters relating to Admiralty. The other courts of justice were restricted from dealing with issues concerning the Admiralty. Under the Admiralty Courts Act, 1861, the three presidency courts were vested with the same powers as that of the High Court of England.

Section 35 of the Admiralty Courts Act, 1861 deals with the jurisdiction of Admiralty court, and it reads as the following:

“35. The jurisdiction conferred by this Act on the High Court of Admiralty may be exercised either by proceedings in rem or by proceedings in personam.”

The Law relating to Admiralty jurisdiction is relevant even today under Article 372 of the Constitution of India.

Therefore, in M.V. Elisabeth vs Harwan Investment and Trading, 1993 AIR SC 1014, the question was whether a court having no admiralty jurisdiction could entertain a case relating to Admiralty. The Supreme Court, in this case, widened the scope of admiralty jurisdiction in India.

The Court held

“Although statutes now control the field, much of the admiralty law is rooted in judicial decisions and influenced by the impact of Civil Law, Common Law, and equity. The ancient maritime codes like the Rhodian Sea Law, the Basilika, the Assizes of Jerusalem, the Rolls of Oleron, the Laws of Visby, the Hanseatic Code, the Black Book of the British Admiralty, Consolato del Mare, and others are, apart from statute, some of the sources from which the Law developed in England. Any attempt to confine Admiralty or maritime Law within the bounds of statutes is not only unrealistic but incorrect.”

THE SUPREME COURT MADE THE FOLLOWING OBSERVATION

“The High Courts in India are superior courts of record. They have original and appellate jurisdiction. They have inherent and plenary powers. Unless expressly or impliedly barred, and subject to the appellate or discretionary jurisdiction of this Court, the High Courts have unlimited jurisdiction, including the jurisdiction to determine their powers.”

Further, in this case, the International Convention for the unification of some rules regarding Arrest of Sea-going Ships (The Arrest Convention), 1952 was also made applicable to India, although it was not ratified.

Similarly, In the M.V Sea Success case, the Supreme Court held that the principles laid down in 1999 Geneva Arrest Convention could be applied in India on matters concerning Admiralty.

In India, The Admiralty (Jurisdiction and Settlement of Maritime Claims) Act, 2017 was enacted on 9 August 2017 to consolidate the laws relating to Admiralty. The Act implemented, repeals all the outdated provisions relating to Admiralty.

As per Section 3 of the Admiralty (Jurisdiction and Settlement of Maritime Claims) Act, 2017, the jurisdiction concerning admiralty matters shall be vested in the respective High Courts, and the courts shall exercise their authority within the territorial waters of their jurisdiction.

Therefore, now the scope of admiralty jurisdiction has been widened, and apart from the presidency courts, the following courts (coastal regions) have jurisdiction to deal with admiralty matters:

  1. High Court of Gujarat
  2. High Court of Andhra Pradesh
  3. High Court of Orissa
  4. High Court of Kerala

PERMISSIBLE CLAIMS

The High Courts’ as discussed earlier, has the jurisdiction to entertain claims as provided under Article 1 of the Arrest Convention, 1952 and Article 1 of the Geneva Arrest Convention, 1999. Therefore, before the enactment of the Admiralty (Jurisdiction and Settlement of Maritime Claims) Act, 2017, the claims were as provided under the conventions as discussed earlier. However, now the Law relating to Maritime claim is provided under section 4 of the Admiralty (Jurisdiction and Settlement of Maritime Claims) Act, 2017.

Section 4 of the Act reads as the following:

“The High Court may exercise jurisdiction to hear and determine any question on a maritime claim, against any vessel, arising out of any

  • a dispute regarding the possession or ownership of a vessel or the ownership of any share therein
  • dispute between the co-owners of a vessel as to the employment or earnings of the vessel
  • mortgage or a charge of the same nature on a vessel;
  • loss or damage caused by the operation of a vessel
  • loss of life or personal injury occurring whether on land or on water, in direct connection with the operation of a vessel
  • loss or damage to or in connection with any goods
  • agreement relating to the carriage of goods or passengers on board a vessel, whether contained in a charter party or otherwise
  • salvage services, including, if applicable, special compensation relating to salvage services in respect of a vessel which by itself or its cargo threatens damage to the environment
  • Pilotage
  • goods, materials, perishable or non-perishable provisions, bunker fuel, equipment (including containers), supplied or services rendered to the vessel for its operation, management, preservation or maintenance including any fee payable or leviable;
  • construction, reconstruction, repair, converting or equipping of the vessel;
  • dues in connection with any port, harbour, canal, dock or light tolls, other tolls, waterway or any charges of similar kind chargeable under any law for the time being in force
  • claim by a master or member of the crew of a vessel or their heirs and dependents for wages or any sum due out of wages or adjudged to be due which may be recoverable as wages or cost of repatriation or social insurance contribution payable on their behalf or any amount an employer is under an obligation to pay to a person as an employee, whether the obligation arose out of a contract of employment or by operation of a law (including operation of a law of any country) for the time being in force, and includes any claim arising under a manning and crew agreement relating to a vessel, notwithstanding anything contained in the provisions of sections 150 and 151 of the Merchant Shipping Act, 1958 (44 of 1958)
  • disbursements incurred on behalf of the vessel or iparticular average or general average
  • dispute arising out of a contract for the sale of the vessel
  • insurance premium (including mutual insurance calls) in respect of the vessel, payable by or on behalf of the vessel owners or demise charterers
  • commission, brokerage or agency fees payable in respect of the vessel by or on behalf of the vessel owner or demise charterer
  • damage or threat of damage caused by the vessel to the environment, coastline or relate interests; measures taken to prevent, minimize, or remove such damage; compensation for such damage; costs of reasonable measures for the restoration of the environment actually undertaken or to be undertaken; loss incurred or likely to be incurred by third parties in connection with such damage; or any other damage, costs, or loss of a similar nature to those identified in this clause
  • costs or expenses relating to raising, removal, recovery, destruction or the rendering harmless of a vessel which is sunk, wrecked, stranded or abandoned, including anything that is or has been on board such vessel, and costs or expenses relating to the preservation of an abandoned vessel and maintenance of its crew; and
  • maritime lie

PROCEDURE FOR ARREST

The Law relating to the arrest of a vessel in rem is provided under Section 5 of the Admiralty (Jurisdiction and Settlement of Maritime Claims) Act, 2017.

Under the section, the High Court may order for the arrest of any vessel within its jurisdiction, where there is a reason to believe:

  • The owner of the vessel is liable for the claim, or
  • The demise charterer of the vessel is liable for the claim, or
  • The claim is based on a mortgage or similar charge, or
  • The claim relates to possession or ownership, or
  • The claim is against the owner, demise charterer, manager or operator of the vessel.

Once the claim has been decided, the claimant has to state the detailed facts, along with the other particulars and must make an application for the substantive suit. The Admiralty suit should specify:

  • The name of the claimant
  • The name of the vessel
  • Flag of the Vessel
  • Details of the owner of the ship
  • Facts relating to the dispute
  • Grounds and
  • Prayer

Once an arrest warrant is issued upon a vessel, the owner of the vessel has to appear and settle the claim or challenge the arrest made. The vessel may be allowed to sail subject to furnishing of security for the claim. At the default of the owner, the ship can be sold, and the sale proceeds may be used to settle the claim.

Therefore, the Law relating to ship arrest is now well settled in India. The admiralty law is an area of development, and it plays an inevitable role in protecting the citizens as well as ensuring that no organization or individual violates the Law of the sea.

CONCLUSION

Therefore, the Law relating to ship arrest is now well settled in India. The admiralty law is an area of development, and it plays an inevitable role in protecting the citizens as well as ensuring that no organization or individual violates the Law of the sea.

“Appeal to Income Tax Commissioner” When you can do that? How you can do that?

INTRODUCTION.

Appeal refers to an act of referring the case to a higher authority against the order passed by a lower authority in respect of that case or matter. It implies a complaint to a higher authority against the order or judgement (alleged to be erroneous) of an administrative authority or appellate authority. At times it may happen that the taxpayer is aggrieved by an order of the Assessing Officer. In such a case he can file an appeal against the order of the Assessing Officer before the Commissioner Of Income-Tax (Appeals) CIT(A). In this part you can gain knowledge about various provisions relating to appeals to CIT(A).

Procedure For Filing of Appeal to ITAT AKT Associates

PARTIES TO AN APPEAL.

There are following two parties to any appeal :
Appellant. The person filing an appeal is called ‘appellant’ or ‘applicant’. Under Income Tax, the first appeal can only be filed by assesse and—hence only assesse can be appellant in such a case. However, in subsequent appeals (i.e., appeal to ITAT, HC or SC) appellant can be assessed or C.I.T.

Defendant / Respondent. The person against whom the appeal is filed is called ‘defendant’ or ‘respondent’.

 

 

 

WHEN APPEAL CAN BE FILED ?

As per Section 246 A The CIT(A) is the first appellate authority. Section 246A specifies the orders against which an appeal can be filed before the CIT(A). The list of major orders against which an appeal can be preferred before the CIT(A) is given below:

  1. Order passed against the taxpayer in a case where the taxpayer denies the liability to be assessed under Income Tax Act.
  2. Intimation issued under Section 143(1)/(1B) where adjustments have been made in income offered to tax in the return of income.
  3. Intimation issued under Section 200A(1) where adjustments are made in the filed statement.
  4. Assessment order passed under Section 143(3) except in case of an order passed in pursuance of directions of the Dispute Resolution Panel
  5. An assessment order passed under Section 144.
  6. Order of Assessment, Re-assessment or Re-computation passed after reopening the assessment under Section 147except an order passed in pursuance of directions of the Dispute Resolution Panel
  7. An order referred to in Section 150.
  8. An order of assessment or reassessment passed under Section 153A or under Section 158BC in case of search/seizure.
  9. Assessment or reassessment order passed under Section 92CD(3).
  10. Rectification order passed under Section 154 or under Section 155.
  11. Order passed under Section 163 treating the taxpayer as an agent of a non-resident.
  12. Order passed under Section 170(2)/(3) assessing the successor of the business in respect of income earned by the predecessor.
  13. Order passed under Section 171 recording the finding about partition of a Hindu Undivided Family.
  14. Order passed by Joint Commissioner under Section 115VP(3) refusing approval to opt for tonnage-tax scheme to qualifying shipping companies.
    Order passed under Section 201(1)/206C(6A) deeming a person responsible for
  15. deduction of tax at source as assesse-in-default due to failure to deduct tax at source or to collect tax at source or to pay the same to the credit of the Government.
  16. Order determining refund passed under Section 237.
  17. Order imposing penalty under Section(s) 221/271/271A/271AAA/271F/271FB/272A/272AA/272B/272BB/275(1A)/158BFA(2)/271B/271BB/271C/271CA/271D/271E/271AAB
    Order imposing a penalty under Chapter XXI.

FEES TO BE PAID FOR APPEAL.

Form 35 shall be accompanied by a fee as under: `

Where the total income/loss of the assessee as computed by the A.O. in the case to which appeal relates is Rs.1,00,000 or less : Rs. 250

Where the total income/loss of the assessee, computed as aforesaid in the case to which appeal relates exceeds Rs. 1,00,000 but does not exceed Rs. 2,00,000 : Rs. 500

Where total income/loss of the assessee, computed as aforesaid in the case to which appeal relates exceeds Rs. 2,00,000 : Rs. 1,000

Where the subject matter of appeal relates to any matter other than specified in clauses (a), (b) and (c) above : Rs. 250

The fee should be credited in a branch of the authorised bank or a branch of the State Bank of India or a branch of the Reserve Bank oIndia after obtaining a challan from the Assessing Officer and a copy of challan sent to the Commissioner of Income-tax (Appeals).

TIME LIMIT FOR FILING APPEAL

According to Section 249(2) The a
Appeal should be presented within a period of 30 days of
the date of payment of tax, where appeal is under Section 248; or
the date of service of notice of demand relating to assessment or penalty if the appeal relates to assessment or penalty; or
However, where an application has been made under Section 270AA(1), the period beginning from the date on which the application is made, to the date on which the order rejecting the application is served on the assesse, shall be excluded.

the date on which intimation or the order sought to be appealed against is served if it relates to any other cases.

As per Section 268 the date on which the order complained of is served is to be excluded. Further, if the assesse was not furnished with a copy of the order when the notice of the order (say notice of demand) was served upon him then the time required for obtaining a copy of the order should be excluded, i.e. period taken for obtaining the order shall be added to the time limit of 30 days.

PROCESS OF PAYMENT OF TAX ONLINE FOR APPEALS.

1. To pay taxes online, login to http://www.tin-nsdl.com > Services > e-payment. You can go and visit following Link – https://onlineservices.tin.egov-nsdl.com/etaxnew/tdsnontds.jsp

2. Select the relevant challan i.e. ITNS 280

3. Enter PAN / TAN (as applicable) and other mandatory challan details like accounting head under which payment is made, address of the taxpayer and the bank through which payment is to be made etc

4. On submission of data entered, a confirmation screen will be displayed. If PAN / TAN is valid as per the ITD PAN / TAN master, then the full name of the taxpayer as per the master will be displayed on the confirmation screen.

5. On confirmation of the data so entered, the taxpayer will be directed to the net-banking site of the bank.

6. The taxpayer has to login to the net-banking site with the user id / password provided by the bank for net-banking purpose and enter payment details at the bank site.

7. On successful payment a challan counterfoil will be displayed containing CIN, payment details and bank name through which e-payment has been made. This counterfoil is proof of payment being made.

PROCEDURE FOR FILING APPEAL FORM 35

Login in your Account using User credentials

                                       ↓

Go to E-File Link and Choose Income Tax Forms

Choose Form No- 35 –Appeal to Commissioner
Appeals.

Now start Filing Form No 35 Online. You will get some details Pre-filed and fill remaining editable details properly.

Now provide details of the order to be appealed against.

Provide details related to Filed ITR, selected for Scrutiny and against which Appeal is to be filed.

Now Provide details related to Statements of facts, Grounds of Appeal and Additional Evidence related information which is not made available at time of Assessment. This is a very crucial part of Appeal. Adequate attention needs to be paid while preparing Facts and Grounds of Appeal.These are the points on which your case will proceed further. Each matter on which there is controversy/ matter of disputes between assessee and Assessing Officer needs to be explained properly. All facts should be adequately drawn because in case of appeal before ITAT also these Grounds of Appeal play a very crucial role.

Now provide details, whether appeal is filed within time limit or there is any delay in filing Appeal. As explained earlier, appeal is to be filed within 30 days from the date of receipt of order however; CIT (A) has power to condone the delay in filing appeal within the prescribed time period. In case of delay, please provide the reasons of delay. The reason should be genuine.

Now provide details related to Appeal Fees paid and address on which further communication can be done and save the appeal.

After above process, submit the Form 35 and you will get the Acknowledgement number of this Submission

CONCLUSION

The right to appeal is not the natural or inherent right of the assesse. It is available to him only if specifically granted under Income Tax Act. Thus, it is a statutory right of the assesse and cannot be denied to him by any order of the Central Board of Direct Tax (CBDT). It can be snatched from the assesse only by an express provision provided under Income Tax Act. Where it is possible, the CIT(A) shall dispose off the appeal within a period of one year from the end of the financial year in which appeal is filed. The order should be issued within 15 days of last hearing.

 

Author: Mohit Mathur

Editor: Adv. Aditya Bhatt & Adv. Chandni Joshi

APPEAL TO COMMISSIONER OF INCOME-TAX.

APPEAL TO COMMISSIONER OF INCOME-TAX

INTRODUCTION.

Appeal refers to an act of referring the case to a higher authority against the order passed by a lower authority in respect of that case or matter. It implies a complaint to a higher authority against the order or judgement (alleged to be erroneous) of an administrative authority or appellate authority. At times it may happen that the taxpayer is aggrieved by an order of the Assessing Officer. In such a case he can file an appeal against the order of the Assessing Officer before the Commissioner Of Income-Tax (Appeals) CIT(A). In this part you can gain knowledge about various provisions relating to appeals to CIT(A).

Procedure For Filing of Appeal to ITAT AKT Associates

PARTIES TO AN APPEAL.

There are following two parties to any appeal :

Appellant. The person filing an appeal is called ‘appellant’ or ‘applicant’. Under Income Tax, the first appeal can only be filed by assesse and—hence only assesse can be appellant in such a case. However, in subsequent appeals (i.e., appeal to ITAT, HC or SC) appellant can be assessed or C.I.T.

Defendant / Respondent. The person against whom the appeal is filed is called ‘defendant’ or ‘respondent’.

WHEN APPEAL CAN BE FILED ?

As per Section 246 A The CIT(A) is the first appellate authority. Section 246A specifies the orders against which an appeal can be filed before the CIT(A). The list of major orders against which an appeal can be preferred before the CIT(A) is given below:

  1.  Order passed against the taxpayer in a case where the taxpayer denies the liability to be assessed under Income Tax Act.
  2. Intimation issued under Section 143(1)/(1B) where adjustments have been made in income offered to tax in the return of income.
  3. Intimation issued under Section 200A(1) where adjustments are made in the filed statement.
  4. Assessment order passed under Section 143(3) except in case of an order passed in pursuance of directions of the Dispute Resolution Panel
  5. An assessment order passed under Section 144.
  6. Order of Assessment, Re-assessment or Re-computation passed after reopening the assessment under Section 147except an order passed in pursuance of directions of the Dispute Resolution Panel
  7.  An order referred to in Section 150.
  8. An order of assessment or reassessment passed under Section 153A or under Section 158BC in case of search/seizure.
  9. Assessment or reassessment order passed under Section 92CD(3).
  10. Rectification order passed under Section 154 or under Section 155.
  11.  Order passed under Section 163 treating the taxpayer as an agent of a non-resident.
  12. Order passed under Section 170(2)/(3) assessing the successor of the business in respect of income earned by the predecessor.
  13. Order passed under Section 171 recording the finding about partition of a Hindu Undivided Family.
  14. Order passed by Joint Commissioner under Section 115VP(3) refusing approval to opt for tonnage-tax scheme to qualifying shipping companies.
  15. Order passed under Section 201(1)/206C(6A) deeming a person responsible for deduction of tax at source as assesse-in-default due to failure to deduct tax at source or to collect tax at source or to pay the same to the credit of the Government. Order determining refund passed under Section 237.
  16. Order imposing penalty under Section(s) 221/271/271A/271AAA/271F/271FB/272A/272AA/272B/272BB/275(1A)/158BFA(2)/271B/271BB/271C/271CA/271D/271E/271AAB
  17. Order imposing a penalty under Chapter XXI.

FEES TO BE PAID FOR APPEAL.

Form 35 shall be accompanied by a fee as under: `

Where the total income/loss of the assesse as computed by the A.O. in the case to which appeal relates is Rs.1,00,000 or less : Rs. 250

Where the total income/loss of the assesse, computed as aforesaid in the case to which appeal relates exceeds Rs. 1,00,000 but does not exceed Rs. 2,00,000 : Rs. 500

Where total income/loss of the assesse, computed as aforesaid in the case to which appeal relates exceeds Rs. 2,00,000 : Rs. 1,000

Where the subject matter of appeal relates to any matter other than specified in clauses (a), (b) and (c) above : Rs. 250

The fee should be credited in a branch of the authorised bank or a branch of the State Bank of India or a branch of the Reserve Bank of India after obtaining a challan from the Assessing Officer and a copy of challan sent to the Commissioner of Income-tax (Appeals).

TIME LIMIT FOR FILING APPEAL.

According to Section 249(2) The a Appeal should be presented within a period of 30 days of the date of payment of tax, where appeal is under Section 248; or the date of service of notice of demand relating to assessment or penalty if the appeal relates to assessment or penalty; or However, where an application has been made under Section 270AA(1), the period beginning from the date on which the application is made, to the date on which the order rejecting the application is served on the assesse, shall be excluded. the date on which intimation or the order sought to be appealed against is served if it relates to any other cases. As per Section 268 the date on which the order complained of is served is to be excluded. Further, if the assesse was not furnished with a copy of the order when the notice of the order (say notice of demand) was served upon him then the time required for obtaining a copy of the order should be excluded, i.e. period taken for obtaining the order shall be added to the time limit of 30 days.

PROCESS OF PAYMENT OF TAX ONLINE FOR APPEALS.

  1. To pay taxes online, login to http://www.tin-nsdl.com > Services > e-payment. You can go and visit following Link – https://onlineservices.tin.egov-nsdl.com/etaxnew/tdsnontds.jsp
  2. Select the relevant challan i.e. ITNS 280
  3. Enter PAN / TAN (as applicable) and other mandatory challan details like accounting head under which payment is made, address of the taxpayer and the bank through which payment is to be made etc.
  4. On submission of data entered, a confirmation screen will be displayed. If PAN / TAN is valid as per the ITD PAN / TAN master, then the full name of the taxpayer as per the master will be displayed on the confirmation screen.
  5. On confirmation of the data so entered, the taxpayer will be directed to the net-banking site of the bank.
  6. The taxpayer has to login to the net-banking site with the user id / password provided by the bank for net-banking purpose and enter payment details at the bank site.
  7. On successful payment a challan counterfoil will be displayed containing CIN, payment details and bank name through which e-payment has been made. This counterfoil is proof of payment being made.

 

PROCEDURE FOR FILING APPEAL FORM 35

 Login in your Account using User credentials

                                  ↓

Go to E-File Link and Choose Income Tax Forms

                                  ↓

Choose Form No- 35 –Appeal to Commissioner

  Appeals.

                                    ↓

Now start Filing Form No 35 Online. You will get some details Pre-filed and fill remaining editable details properly.

                                  ↓

Now provide details of the order to be appealed against.

                                    ↓

Provide details related to Filed ITR, selected for Scrutiny and against which Appeal is to be filed.

                                    ↓

Now Provide details related to Statements of facts, Grounds of Appeal and Additional Evidence related information which is not made available at time of Assessment. This is a very crucial part of Appeal. Adequate attention needs to be paid while preparing Facts and Grounds of Appeal. These are the points on which your case will proceed further. Each matter on which there is controversy/ matter of disputes between assesse and Assessing Officer needs to be explained properly. All facts should be adequately drawn because in case of appeal before ITAT also these Grounds of Appeal play a very crucial role.

                                  ↓

Now provide details, whether appeal is filed within time limit or there is any delay in filing Appeal. As explained earlier, appeal is to be filed within 30 days from the date of receipt of order however; CIT (A) has power to condone the delay in filing appeal within the prescribed time period. In case of delay, please provide the reasons of delay. The reason should be genuine.

                                 ↓

Now provide details related to Appeal Fees paid and address on which further communication can be done and save the appeal.

                                ↓

After above process, submit the Form 35 and you will get the Acknowledgement number of this Submission

 

CONCLUSION.

The right to appeal is not the natural or inherent right of the assesse. It is available to him only if specifically granted under Income Tax Act. Thus, it is a statutory right of the assesse and cannot be denied to him by any order of the Central Board of Direct Tax (CBDT). It can be snatched from the assesse only by an express provision provided under Income Tax Act. Where it is possible, the CIT(A)  shall dispose off the appeal within a period of one year from the end of the financial year in which appeal is filed. The order should be issued within 15 days of last hearing.

Author: Mohit Mathur

Editor: Adv. Aditya Bhatt & Adv. Chandni Joshi

Chapter 6 Registration of Exporters

Once all the research and analysis is done its time to get registered with the various government authorities.

Registration with Reserve Bank of India (RBI)

Prior to 1997, it was necessary for every first time exporter to obtain IEC number from Reserve Bank of India (RBI) before engaging in any kind of export operations. But now this job is being done by DGFT.

Registration with Director General of Foreign Trade (DGFT)
For every first time exporter, it is necessary to get registered with the DGFT (Director General of Foreign Trade), Ministry of Commerce, Government of India.

DGFT provide exporter a unique IEC Number. IEC Number is a ten digits code required for the purpose of export as well as import. No exporter is allowed to export his good abroad without IEC number.

However, if the goods are exported to Nepal, or to Myanmar through Indo-Myanmar boarder or to China through Gunji, Namgaya, Shipkila or Nathula ports then it is not necessary to obtain IEC number provided the CIF value of a single consignment does not exceed Indian amount of Rs. 25, 000 /-.

Application for IEC number can be submitted to the nearest regional authority of DGFT.
Application form which is known as “Aayaat Niryaat Form – ANF2A” can also be submitted online at the DGFT web-site: http://dgft.gov.in.

While submitting an application form for IEC number, an applicant is required to submit his PAN account number. Only one IEC is issued against a single PAN number. Apart from PAN number, an applicant is also required to submit his Current Bank Account number and Bankers Certificate.

A amount of Rs 1000/- is required to submit with the application fee. This amount can be submitted in the form of a Demand Draft or payment through EFT (Electronic Fund Transfer by Nominated Bank by DGFT.

Registration with Export Promotion Council

Registered under the Indian Company Act, Export Promotion Councils or EPC is a non-profit organisation for the promotion of various goods exported from India in international market. EPC works in close association with the Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Government of India and act as a platform for interaction between the exporting community and the government.

So, it becomes important for an exporter to obtain a registration cum membership certificate (RCMC) from the EPC. An application for registration should be accompanied by a self certified copy of the IEC number. Membership fee should be paid in the form of cheque or draft after ascertaining the amount from the concerned EPC.

The RCMC certificate is valid from 1st April of the licensing year in which it was issued and shall be valid for five years ending 31st March of the licensing year, unless otherwise specified.

Registration with Commodity Boards

Commodity Board is registered agency designated by the Ministry of Commerce, Government of India for purposes of export-promotion and has offices in India and abroad. At present, there are five statutory Commodity Boards under the Department of Commerce. These Boards are responsible for production, development and export of tea, coffee, rubber, spices and tobacco.

Registration with Income Tax Authorities
Goods exported out of the country are eligible for exemption from both Value Added Tax and Central Sales Tax. So, to get the benefit of tax exemption it is important for an exporter to get registered with the Tax Authorities.

 

Chapter 5 SWOT Analysis

Introduction

SWOT analysis is a useful method of summaries all the information generated during the export planning. SWOT stands for strengths, weakness, opportunities and threats, which helps to isolate the strong and week areas within an export strategy. SWOT also indicates the future opportunities or threats that may exist in the chosen markets and is instrumental in strategy formulation and selection.

To apply your own SWOT analysis, start by creating a heading for each category – ‘Strengths’, ‘Weaknesses’, ‘Opportunities’, and ‘Threats’. Under each of these, write a list of five relevant aspects of your business and external market environment. Strengths and weaknesses apply to internal aspects of your business; opportunities and threats relate to external research.

Your final analysis should help you develop short and long term business goals and action plans, and help guide your market selection process.

Environmental factors internal to the company can be classified as strengths or weaknesses, and those external to the company can be classified as opportunities or threats.

Strengths

Business strengths are its resources and capabilities that can be used as a basis for developing a competitive-advantage. Examples of such strengths include:

  • Patents
  • Strong brand names.
  • Good reputation among customers.
  • Cost advantages from proprietary know-how.
  • Exclusive access to high grade natural resources.
  • Favorable access to distribution networks.

Weaknesses

The absence of certain strengths may be viewed as a weakness. For example, each of the following may be considered weaknesses:

  • Lack of patent protection.
  • A weak brand name.
  • Poor reputation among customers.
  • High cost structure.
  • Lack of access to the best natural resources.
  • Lack of access to key distribution channels.

Opportunities

The external environmental analysis may reveal certain new opportunities for profit and growth. Some examples of such opportunities include:

  • An unfulfilled customer need.
  • Arrival of new technologies.
  • Loosening of regulations.
  • Removal of international trade barriers.

 Threats

Changes in the external environmental also may present threats to the firm. Some examples of such threats include:

  • Shifts in consumer tastes away from the firm’s products
  • Emergence of substitute products.
  • New regulations.
  • Increased trade barriers

Successful SWOT Analysis
Simple rules for successful SWOT analysis:

  • Be realistic about the strengths and weaknesses of the organization.
  • Analysis should distinguish between where the organization is today, and where it could be in the future.
  • Be specific.
  • Always analyse in relation to your competition i.e. better than or worse than your competition.
  • Keep your SWOT short and simple.

A SWOT analysis can be very subjective, and is an excellent tool for indicating the negative factors first in order to turn them into positive factors.

 

Chapter 4 Market Selection

Introduction

After evaluation of company’s key capabilities, strengths and weaknesses, the next step is to start evaluating opportunities in promising export markets. It involves the screening of large lists of countries in order to arrive at a short list of four to five. The shorting method should be done on the basis of various political, economic and cultural factors that will potentially affect export operations in chosen market.

Some factors to consider include:

  1. Geographical Factors
    • Country, state, region,
    • Time zones,
    • Urban/rural location logistical considerations e.g. freight and distribution channels
  2. Economic, Political, and Legal Environmental Factors
    • Regulations including quarantine,
    • Labelling standards,
    • Standards and consumer protection rules,
    • Duties and taxes
  3. Demographic Factors
    • Age and gender,
    • Income and family structure,
    • Occupation,
    • Cultural beliefs,
    • Major competitors,
    • Similar products,
    • Key brands.
  4. Market Characteristics
    • Market size,
    • Availability of domestic manufacturers,
    • Agents, distributors and suppliers.

Foreign Market Research

Understanding a market’s key characteristics requires gathering a broad range of primary and secondary research, much of which you can source without cost from the internet.

Primary research, such as population figures, product compliance standards, statistics and other facts can be obtained without any cost from international organizations like United Nations (UN) and World Trade Organizations (WTO). Analysis of export statistics over a period of several years helps an individual to determine whether the market for a particular product is growing or shrinking.

Secondary research, such as periodicals, studies, market reports and surveys, can be found through government websites, international organisations, and commercial market intelligence firms.

Foreign Market Selection Process

Step 1: Gather Information on a Broad Range of Markets

Market selection process requires a broad range of informations depending upon the products or services to be exported, which includes:

  • The demand for product/service.
  • The size of the potential audience.
  • Whether the target audience can affords product.
  • What the regulatory issues are that impact on exports of product.
  • Ease of access to this market – proximity/freight.
  • Are there appropriate distribution channels for product/service.
  • The environment for doing business – language, culture, politics etc.
  • Is it financially viable to export to selected market.

You can gather much of the first step information yourself from a variety of sources at little or no cost. Sources of information include:

  • Talking to colleagues and other exporters.
  • Trade and Enterprise – web site, publications, call centre.
  • The library.
  • The Internet.

Step 2: Research a Selection of Markets In-Depth

From the results of the first stage, narrow your selection down to three to five markets and undertake some in-depth research relating specifically to your product. While doing so, some of the questions that may arise at this stage are:

  • What similar products are in the marketplace (including products that may not be similar but are used to achieve the same goal, e.g. the product in our sample matrix at the end of this document is a hair removal cream. As well as undertaking competitor research on other hair removal creams, we would also need to consider other products that are used for hair removal, i.e. razors, electrolysis, wax).
  • What is your point of difference? What makes your product unique? What are the key selling points for your product?
  • How do people obtain/use these products?
  • Who provides them?
  • Are they imported? If so from which countries?
  • Is there a local manufacturer or provider?
  • Who would your major competitors be? What are the key brands or trade names?
  • What is the market’s structure and shape?
  • What is the market’s size?
  • Are there any niche markets, and if so how big are they?
  • Who are the major importers/ stockists / distributors / agencies or suppliers?
  • What are the other ways to obtain sales/representation?
  • What are the prices or fees in different parts of the market?
  • What are the mark-ups at different distribution levels?
  • What are the import regulations, duties or taxes, including compliance and professional registrations if these apply?
  • How will you promote your product or service if there is a lot of competition?
  • Are there any significant trade fairs, professional gathers or other events where you can promote your product or service?
  • Packaging – do you need to change metric measures to imperial, do you need to list ingredients?
  • Will you need to translate promotional material and packaging?
  • Is your branding – colours, imagery etc., culturally acceptable?

Foreign Market Selection Entry

Having completed the market selection process and chosen your target market, the next step is to plan your entry strategy.
There are a number of options for entering your chosen market. Most exporters initially choose to work through agents or distributors. In the longer term, however, you may consider other options, such as taking more direct control of your market, more direct selling or promotion, or seeking alliances or agreements.

 

Chapter 3 Identifying Products For Export

Introduction

A key factor in any export business is clear understanding and detail knowledge of products to be exported. The selected product must be in demand in the countries where it is to be exported. Before making any selection, one should also consider the various government policies associated with the export of a particular product.

Whether companies are exporting first time or have been in export trade for a long time – it is better for both the groups to be methodical and systematic in identifying a right product. It’s not sufficient to have all necessary data ‘in your mind’ – but equally important to put everything on paper and in a structured manner. Once this job is done, it becomes easier to find the gaps in the collected information and take necessary corrective actions.

There are products that sell more often than other product in international market. It is not very difficult to find them from various market research tools. However, such products will invariably have more sellers and consequently more competition and fewer margins. On the other hand – a niche product may have less competition and higher margin – but there will be far less buyers.

Fact of the matter is – all products sell, though in varying degrees and there are positive as well as flip sides in whatever decision you take – popular or niche product.

Key Factors in Product Selection

  • The product should be manufactured or sourced with consistent standard quality, comparable to your competitors. ISO or equivalent certification helps in selling the product in the international market.
  • If possible, avoid products which are monopoly of one or few suppliers. If you are the manufacturer – make sure sufficient capacity is available in-house or you have the wherewithal to outsource it at short notice. Timely supply is a key success factor in export business
    • The price of the exported product should not fluctuate very often – threatening profitability to the export business.
  • Strictly check the government policies related to the export of a particular product. Though there are very few restrictions in export – it is better to check regulatory status of your selected product.
  • Carefully study the various government incentive schemes and tax exemption like duty drawback and DEPB.
  • Import regulation in overseas markets, specially tariff and non-tariff barriers. Though a major non-tariff barrier (textile quota) has been abolished – there are still other tariff and non-tariff barriers. If your product attracts higher duty in target country – demand obviously falls.
  • Registration/Special provision for your products in importing country. This is specially applicable for processed food and beverages, drugs and chemicals.
  • Seasonal vagaries of selected products as some products sell in summer, while others in winter. Festive season is also important factor, for example certain products are more sellable only during Christmas.
  • Keep in mind special packaging and labeling requirements of perishable products like processed food and dairy products.
  • Special measures are required for transportation of certain products, which may be bulky or fragile or hazardous or perishable.