Mutual Legal Assistance Treaties: A Comprehensive Overview

Mutual Legal Assistance Treaties: A Comprehensive Overview


Mutual Legal Assistance Treaties (MLATs) are crucial instruments in the global fight against crime. They facilitate international cooperation in criminal matters, allowing countries to share vital information and evidence. This article delves into the concept of MLATs, their significance, India’s involvement, and the distinction between MLAT countries and Section 44 countries.

Understanding Mutual Legal Assistance Treaties (MLATs)

MLATs are agreements between two or more countries for the purpose of gathering and exchanging information to enforce public or criminal laws. They enhance the effectiveness of participating countries in the investigation and prosecution of crime, through cooperation and mutual legal assistance. MLATs provide a broad legal framework for tracing, restraining, and confiscating proceeds and instruments of crime, as well as the funds meant to finance terrorist acts.

India’s Involvement in MLATs

As of November 2019, India has entered into Mutual Legal Assistance Treaties/Agreements with 42 countries. These treaties have been instrumental in facilitating international cooperation in both criminal and civil matters. They allow for the exchange of crucial information and evidence that can significantly aid in investigations and legal proceedings.

List of Countries with MLATs with India

India has signed MLATs with countries such as Afghanistan, Australia, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Bhutan, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, Egypt, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Iran, Israel, Kuwait, Lithuania, Malaysia, Malawi, Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia, Nepal, Netherlands, Oman, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey, UAE, UK, Ukraine, USA, Uzbekistan, and Vietnam.

Important Case Laws

One of the cases where India has benefited from an MLAT is the case of Nimesh Harkisandas Topiwala v. Deepa Dalpatram Topiwala. In this case, the Bombay High Court ordered that, since India and the USA have an MLAT in criminal matters, India can also seek assistance from the USA in civil matters.

Distinction Between Section 44 Countries and MLAT Countries

The term “Reciprocating Country” under Section 44A of the Civil Procedure Code (CPC) of India and a country signing an MLAT with India refer to two different legal concepts. Section 44A of the CPC deals with the execution of decrees passed by Courts in reciprocating territories. A “reciprocating country” is a country that the Central Government of India has declared to be a reciprocating territory, and the courts of which will recognize and enforce judgments passed by Indian courts. This is primarily used in civil matters, such as the enforcement of money decrees, matrimonial cases, etc. On the other hand, an MLAT is primarily used in criminal matters, such as extradition of criminals, investigation of transnational crimes, etc.


MLATs play a pivotal role in fostering international cooperation in the realm of criminal justice. They enable countries to effectively combat transnational crime and ensure justice is served. India’s active participation in MLATs underscores its commitment to uphold the rule of law, both domestically and internationally.